Pharyngitis is diagnosed, when posterior pharyngeal wall (back of the throat) is inflamed that appears as oedema and redness. Origin of the disease may be infectious; in this event, the disease is caused by various respiratory viruses (parainfluenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus, etc.), bacterial infections and, rarely, fungal flora. Non-infectious pharyngitis occurs due to the following factors:
- Body reaction to an allergen.
- Deterioration of throat mucosa.
- Inhalation of aggressive chemicals, dust, hazardous air pollution.
- Endogenous inflammatory processes (tonsillitis, dental caries, etc.).
Pharyngitis is diagnosed through patient’s examination (pharyngoscopy) and revealing of the characteristic alterations of posterior pharyngeal wall. A physician can take a pharyngeal swab to conduct appropriate testing and define cause of the disease.
Classification and symptoms of the disease
Distinction is made between acute and chronic disease.
- Acute pharyngitis occurs as a response to infectious and non-infectious factors affecting throat mucosa. The inflammatory process frequently spreads to other parts of upper respiratory airways (larynx, epipharynx, and trachea).
- Chronic pharyngitis is characterized by long-term course, when exacerbation and relief phases are alternating. The most often cause of chronic pharyngitis is opportunistic pathogenic microflora of oral cavity against the background of suppressed immunity. In some cases, chronic pharyngitis may be a result of somatopathy exacerbation (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux disease), bad habits, and persistent effect of negative environmental factors.
In children and adults, pharyngitis appears as the following symptoms:
- Throat discomfort, pain in deglutition.
- Globus sensation (due to oedema).
- Dry and itchy throat, frequent hacking cough.
- Elevated body temperature (generally, not above 38° C).
Pharyngitis therapy is carried out in two directions: symptoms relief and combating a causative agent. Treatment regimen for combating the causative agent includes antiseptics applied on the appropriate part of the throat. It may be irrigation, gargling, lubrication of the inflamed site or inhalation with the Decasan® nebula. To give the Decasan® inhalation, 1-2 nebulas should be used in accordance with leaflet (physician’s prescription). The most optimum inhalation frequency is twice daily.
If the disease is caused by a virus, treatment can be initiated as antiviral medicines administration. In children, medicines for pharyngitis treatment should be taken as syrup and inhalation nebulas. The АКК® is inhaled up to 8 times daily for 4 to 7 days.
Pharyngitis prevention includes timely diagnostics and treatment of endogenous inflammatory processes, renunciation of bad habits, body conditioning, providing healthy microclimate at work and home.